The provision of Zakat
Among the five pillars of Islam; Faith, Prayer, Fast are mandatory for all Muslims. But Zakat and Hajj are mandatory only for the wealthy male and female Muslims. Zakat is derived from Holy Quran.
It means purity, growth, excess. It means for the satisfaction of Allah to donate a specific part of the total wealth fixed by the Shariah to any one type or several types of people among the eight types of people described in HolyQuran is called Zakat.
According to Islam, if anyone has 87.48 grams of gold and 612.36 grams of silver or equivalent wealth in the whole year, he has to pay some of his or her wealth on the ratio of 2.50% to the eight types of people ordered by Almighty Allah is called Zakat.
Therefore, he who has 87.48 grams of gold and 612.36 grams of silver or equivalent wealth which is extra for him or her for the whole year, he or she has to pay Zakatto the poor people and it is mandatory.
Zakat is one of the five pillars of Islam. Religion cannot get fulfillment without Zakat. To denounce Zakat is to commit blasphemy. Zakat became mandatory in the second Hijri year. Almighty Allah has revealed many verses in the Holy Quran to tell of the importance of Zakat.
He addresses, 'Attend to your prayers, and practice regular charity, and kneel with those who kneel.' (Sur Baqarah: 43). In another line Allah delivers, 'And those in whose wealth are a rightful share. For the beggar and the deprived.' (Sura al-Ma'arij: 24-25)
Among the five pillars of Islam, prayer and fast are related to physical labor and mind, on the other hand, Zakat and Hajj are related to body and money. Especially Zakat is only mandatory for rich and wealthy people. Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi wasallam addresses in Hadith that 'The wealth will be collected from them who are rich and wealthy.
And this will be distributed to the poor and helpless people.' Islam is the religion of equality and brotherhood. Islam never likes that all wealth will be concentrated in only one person. Islam desires every people rich and poor can live happily. So for the poor, the rule of Zakat is established.
Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar R. narrates, Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi wasallam addresses, 'I am ordered to fight with the people until they testify that- There is no God except Allah and Muhammad SallallahuAlaihi wasallam is His prophet as well as they establish prayer and provide Zakat.' (Bukhari and Muslim)
Hazrat Abu Sayed R. narrates- 'Once prophet Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam takes oath three times by saying, 'He who prays for five times a day, keep fast in Ramadan, pay Zakat and stay away from all kinds of sins, Allah will say by opening the gates of heaven, 'Enter through this securely.'(Nasayee)
Categories of Dividing Zakat: Almighty Allah has mentioned eight categories to divide Zakat. '1. Charities are for the poor, 2. The destitute. 3. Those who administer them, 4. For reconciling hearts, 5. For freeing slaves, 6. For those in debt, 7. In the path of Allah, 8. For the traveller in need-an obligation from Allah.' (Sura Tawbah-60)
1. Poor: Who cannot spend his days generally. Spend the days with great sorrows- Pay them Zakat.
2. Destitute: Helpless and shelterless people - are entitled to get Zakat.
3. Those who administer them: Those who collect and distribute Zakat, they can be paid salary from this Zakat.
4. Freeing slaves: To free the slaves from slavery- Zakat can be paid.
5. Muallafate Kulub: To pay Zakat in new Muslim, non-Muslim, disbeliever so that they can feel interested in Islam and love can arise in their heart toward Islam and Muslims. Except for this purpose, Zakat cannot be distributed to them.
6. Those are in debt: To free the debtor from the debt - pay Zakat.
7. Who ate in the path of Allah: Fee Sabillillah means who are on the Jihad of the path of Allah. To help them, Zakat can be given to them.
8. For the traveller: The traveller who is in trouble and danger for lacking money. He who has not enough money to reach his house without any problem. In this circumstance, it is legal to pay Zakat to help him.
---Abdullah Al Mamun